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hate rules, love friends, love food!, Malay...

Wednesday, December 12, 2007


Disleksia ialah salah satu gangguan dalam pembelajaran yang biasanya dialami oleh kanak-kanak. Selalunya, masalah pembelajaran yang dihadapi adalah seperti membaca, menulis, mengeja, dan kemahiran mengira. Oleh itu dyslexia merujuk kepada mereka yang menghadapi masalah untuk membaca dan menulis walaupun mempunyai daya pemikiran yang normal.

Perkataan disleksia diambil daripada istilah Yunani dys yang bermaksud 'sulit dalam...' dan lex (diambil daripada legein) yang bermakna 'bercakap'. Secara kesimpulannya, disleksia bermakna menderita kesukaran yang berhubungan dengan kata atau simbol-simbol tulisan.

Kanak-kanak yang mengalami disleksia bukanlah tergolong dalam golongan yang bodoh. Daripada kajian-kajian mendapati mereka mempunyai tahap kecerdasan intelektual yang normal dan tidak mempunyai masalah pendengaran dan penglihatan.

Monday, November 19, 2007

lyric:cuma manusia

Kerispatih - Cuma Manusia lyrics

Inikah yang harus ku hadapi
Perbedaan tiada bertepi
Mengenali keinginanmu terhadap aku
Yang tak semuanya keinginanku

Mengapa tak pernah kita coba
Selaraskan rasa dalam jiwa
Ini dirku dan begitulah dirimu
Tak pernah sempurna cuma manusia

Seharusnya yang terjadi
Slalu dapat disadari
Dua beda kan saling menyatu
Bukan tuk diri sendiri
Bila sampai hari ini
Masih ada cinta yang membuat kita satu
Itu semua anugerah yang kuasa

Kita cuma manusia
Yang dianugerahkan cinta
Oleh yang kuasa

Sunday, September 23, 2007


The phoenix is a mythical sacred firebird in ancient Phoenicia mythology, and in myths derived from it.

The phoenix is a bird with beautiful gold and red plumage. At the end of its life-cycle the phoenix builds itself a nest of cinnamon twigs that it then ignites; both nest and bird burn fiercely and are reduced to ashes, from which a new, young phoenix arises. The new phoenix is destined to live, usually, as long as the old one. In some stories, the new phoenix embalms the ashes of the old phoenix in an egg made of myrrh and deposits it in the Egyptian city of Heliopolis ("the city of the sun" in Greek). The bird was also said to regenerate when hurt or wounded by a foe, thus being almost immortal and invincible — a symbol of fire and divinity.

Although descriptions (and life-span) vary, the phoenix (Bennu bird) became popular in early Christian art, literature and Christian symbolism, as a symbol of Christ representing his resurrection, immortality, and life-after-death (1 Clement 25). Michael W. Holmes points out that early Christian writers justified their use of this myth because the word appears in Psalm 92:12 [LXX Psalm 91:13], but in that passage it actually refers to a palm tree, not a mythological bird, however, it was the "flourishing of Christian Hebraist interpretations of Job 29:18 that brought the Joban phoenix to life for Christian readers of the seventeenth century. At the heart of these interpretations is the proliferation of richly complementary meanings that turn upon three translations of the word chol -- as phoenix, palm tree, or sand -- in Job 29:18."

Originally, the phoenix was identified by the Egyptians as a stork or heron-like bird called a benu, known from the Book of the Dead and other Egyptian texts as one of the sacred symbols of worship at Heliopolis, closely associated with the rising sun and the Egyptian sun-god Ra.


The whispers in the morning
Of lovers sleeping tight
Are rolling like thunder now
As I look in your eyes

I hold on to your body
And feel each move you make
Your voice is warm and tender
A love that I could not forsake

'Cause I am your lady
And you are my man
Whenever you reach for me
I'll do all that I can

Lost is how I'm feeling lying in your arms
When the world outside's too
Much to take
That all ends when I'm with you

Even though there may be times
It seems I'm far away
Never wonder where I am
'Cause I am always by your side

'Cause I am your lady
And you are my man
Whenever you reach for me
I'll do all that I can

We're heading for something
Somewhere I've never been
Sometimes I am frightened
But I'm ready to learn
Of the power of love

The sound of your heart beating
Made it clear
Suddenly the feeling that I can't go on
Is light years away

'Cause I am your lady
And you are my man
Whenever you reach for me
I'll do all that I can

We're heading for something
Somewhere I've never been
Sometimes I am frightened
But I'm ready to learn
Of the power of love

The sound of your heart beating
Made it clear
Suddenly the feeling that I can't go on
Is light years away

'Cause I am your lady
And you are my man
Whenever you reach for me
I'll do all that I can

We're heading for something
Somewhere I've never been
Sometimes I am frightened
But I'm ready to learn
Of the power of love

the power of love
the power of love
Sometimes I am frightened
But I'm ready to learn
Of the power of love
the power of love

Saturday, September 22, 2007

When I Fall in Love = MY FAVORITE SONG (2)

When I fall in love
It will be forever
Or I'll never fall in love

In a restless world
Like this is
Love is ended before it's begun
And too many
Moonlight kisses
Seem to cool in the warmth of the sun

When I give my heart
it will be completely
Or I'll never give my heart

And the moment I can feel that you feel that way too
Is when I fall in love with you


A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. There are more than a hundred species of wild roses, all from the northern hemisphere and mostly from temperate regions. The species form a group of generally prickly shrubs or climbers, and sometimes trailing plants, reaching 2–5 metres tall, rarely reaching as high as 20 metres by climbing over other plants.

The name originates from Latin rosa, borrowed through Oscan from colonial Greek in southern Italy: rhodon (Aeolic form: wrodon), from Aramaic wurrdā, from Assyrian wurtinnu, from Old Iranian *warda (cf. Armenian vard, Avestan warda, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr).

Rose hips are sometimes eaten, mainly for their vitamin C content. They are usually pressed and filtered to make rose-hip syrup, as the fine hairs surrounding the seeds are unpleasant to eat (resembling itching powder). They can also be used to make herbal tea, jam, jelly and marmalade. A rose that has aged or gone rotten may not be particularly fragrant, but the rose's basic chemistry prevents it from producing a pungent odor of any kind. Notably, when balled and mashed together the fragrance of the rose is enhanced. The fragrance of particularly large balls of mashed roses is enhanced even further.

Tuesday, September 18, 2007


A foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any illness resulting from the consumption of food. Although foodborne illness is commonly called food poisoning, this is often a misnomer. True food poisoning occurs when a person ingests a contaminating chemical or a natural toxin, while most cases of foodborne illness are actually food infection caused by a variety of foodborne pathogenic bacteria, viruses, prions or parasites. Such contamination usually arises from improper handling, preparation, or food storage. Good hygiene practices before, during, and after food preparation can reduce the chances of contracting an illness. The action of monitoring food to ensure that it will not cause foodborne illness is known as food safety. Foodborne disease can also be caused by a large variety of toxins that affect the environment. For foodborne illness caused by chemicals

Symptoms typically begin several hours to several days after ingestion and depending on the agent involved, can include one or more of the following: nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, gastroenteritis, fever, headache or fatigue. In most cases the body is able to permanently recover after a short period of acute discomfort and illness. However, foodborne illness can result in permanent health problems or even death, especially in babies, pregnant women (and their fetuses), elderly people, sick people and others with weak immune systems. Foodborne illness is a major cause of reactive arthritis, which typically occurs 1–3 weeks afterward. Similarly, people with liver disease are especially susceptible to infections from Vibrio vulnificus, which can be found in oysters or crabs. Typically food poisoning is evident when uncooked, or unprepared food is eaten.

Friday, September 14, 2007

Brain death

A brain-dead individual has no electrical activity in the brain and no clinical evidence of brain function upon physical examination. This includes no response to pain and no cranial nerve reflexes. Reflexes include pupillary response (fixed pupils), oculocephalic reflex, corneal reflex, no response to the caloric reflex test and no spontaneous respirations.

It is important to distinguish between brain death and states that mimic brain death (e.g., barbiturate intoxication, alcohol intoxication, sedative overdose, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, coma or chronic vegetative states). Some comatose patients can recover, and some patients with severe irreversible neurologic dysfunction will nonetheless retain some lower brain functions such as spontaneous respiration, despite the losses of both cortex and brainstem functionality. Thus, anencephaly, in which there is no higher brain present, is generally not considered brain death, though it is certainly an irreversible condition in which it may be appropriate to withdraw life support.

Note that brain electrical activity can stop completely, or drop to such a low level as to be undetectable with most equipment. This includes a flat EEG during deep anaesthesia or cardiac arrest. To preclude these states being defined as brain death, the term refers only to the permanent cessation of electrical activity.

The diagnosis of brain death needs to be rigorous to determine whether the condition is irreversible. Legal criteria vary, but it generally requires neurological exams by two independent physicians. The exams must show complete absence of brain function, and may include two isoelectric (flat-line) EEGs 24 hours apart. The proposed Uniform Determination Of Death Act in the United States attempts to standardize criteria. The patient should have a normal temperature and be free of drugs that can suppress brain activity if the diagnosis is to be made on EEG criteria.

Alternatively, a radionuclide cerebral blood flow scan that shows complete absence of intracranial blood flow can be used to confirm the diagnosis without performing EEGs.

Misdiagnosed death

Misdiagnosed death

There are many anecdotal references to people being declared dead by physicians and then coming back to life, sometimes days later in their own coffin, or when embalming procedures are just about to begin. Owing to significant scientific advancements in the Victorian era, some people in Britain became obsessively worried about living after being declared dead.

A first responder is not authorized to pronounce a patient dead. Some EMT training manuals specifically state that a person is not to be assumed dead unless there are clear and obvious indications that death has occurred. These indications include mortal decapitation, rigor mortis (rigidity of the body), livor mortis (blood pooling in the part of the body at lowest elevation), decomposition, incineration, or other bodily damage that is clearly inconsistent with life. If there is any possibility of life and in the absence of a do not resuscitate (DNR) order, emergency workers are instructed to begin rescue and not end it until a patient has been brought to a hospital to be examined by a physician. This frequently leads to situation of a patient being pronounced dead on arrival (DOA). However, some states allow paramedics to pronounce death. This is usually based on specific criteria. Aside from the above mentioned, conditions include advanced measures including CPR, intubations, IV access, and administering medicines without regaining a pulse for at least 20 minutes.

In cases of electrocution, CPR for an hour or longer can allow stunned nerves to recover, allowing an apparently-dead person to survive. People found unconscious under icy water may survive if their faces are kept continuously cold until they arrive at an emergency room.[ This "diving response", in which metabolic activity and oxygen requirements are minimal, is something humans share with cetaceans called the mammalian diving reflex.

As medical technologies advance, ideas about when death occurs may have to be re-evaluated in light of the ability to restore a person to vitality after longer periods of apparent death (as happened when CPR and defibrillation showed that cessation of heartbeat is inadequate as a decisive indicator of death). The lack of electrical brain activity may not be enough to consider someone scientifically dead. Therefore, the concept of information theoretical death has been suggested as a better means of defining when true death actually occurs, though the concept has few practical applications outside of the field of cryonics.

There have been some scientific attempts to bring dead organisms back to life, but with limited success . In science fiction scenarios where such technology is readily available, real death is distinguished from reversible death.


Death is the permanent end of the life of a biological organism. Death may refer to the end of life as either an event or condition. Many factors can cause or contribute to an organism's death, including predation, disease, habitat destruction, senescence, malnutrition and accidents. The principal causes of death in developed countries are diseases related to aging. Traditions and beliefs related to death are an important part of human culture, and central to many religions. In medicine, biological details and definitions of death have become increasingly complicated as technology advances.

Death can be caused by disease, accident, homicide, or suicide. The leading cause of death in developing countries is infectious disease. The leading causes of death in developed countries are atherosclerosis (heart disease and stroke), cancer, and other diseases related to obesity and aging. These conditions cause loss of homeostasis, leading to cardiac arrest, causing loss of oxygen and nutrient supply, causing irreversible deterioration of the brain and other tissues. With improved medical capability, dying has become a condition to be managed. Home deaths, once the norm, are now rare in the first world.

In developing nations, inferior sanitary conditions and lack of access to medical technology makes death from infectious diseases more common than in developed countries. One such disease is tuberculosis, a bacterial disease which killed 1.7 million people in 2004.

Many leading first world causes of death can be postponed by diet and physical activity, but the accelerating incidence of disease with age still imposes limits on human longevity. The evolutionary cause of aging is, at best, only just beginning to be understood. It has been suggested that direct intervention in the aging process may now be the most effective intervention against major causes of death.

Monday, September 10, 2007

Religious fasting

Religious fasting


In Islam, fasting for a month is an obligatory practice during the holy month of Ramadan, from fajr (dawn), until maghrib (sunset). Muslims are prohibited from eating, drinking, smoking, and engaging in sexual intercourse while fasting. Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the Pillars of Islam, and thus one of the most important acts of Islamic worship. By fasting, whether during Ramadan or other times, a Muslim draws closer to their Lord by abandoning the things they enjoy, such as food and drink. This makes the sincerity of their faith and their devotion to God (Arabic:Allah) all the more evident.

The Qur'an states that fasting was prescribed for those before them (i.e., the Jews and Christians) and that by fasting a Muslim gains taqwa, which can be described as the care taken by a person to do everything God has commanded and to keep away from everything that He has forbidden. Fasting helps prevent many sins and is a shield with which the Muslim protects him/herself from jahannam (hell).

Muslims believe that fasting is more than abstaining from food and drink. It also includes abstaining from any falsehood in speech and action, from any ignorant and indecent speech, and from arguing and fighting, and lustful thoughts. Therefore, fasting helps develop good behavior.

Fasting also inculcates a sense of fraternity and solidarity, as Muslims feel and experience what their needy and hungry brothers and sisters feel. However, even the poor, needy, and hungry participate in the fast. Moreover, Ramadan is a month of giving charity and sharing meals to break the fast together.

While fasting in the month of Ramadan is considered wajib (obligatory), Islam also prescribed certain days for non-obligatory, voluntary fasting, such as:

  • each Monday and Thursday of a week
  • the 13th, 14th, and 15th day of each lunar month
  • six days in the month of Shawwal (the month following Ramadan)
  • the Day of Arafat (9th of Dhu al-Hijjah in the Hijri (Islamic calendar))
  • the Day of Ashuraa (10th of Muharram in the Hijri calendar), with one more day of fasting before or after it (Sunnis only)

Although fasting is wajib, exceptions are made for persons in particular circumstances:

  • Children under the age of 10; some parents will encourage their children fast for only three hours a day once they reach four years old, so the children get used to fasting.
  • Serious illness; the days lost to illness will have to be made up after recovery.
  • If one is traveling, since the fajr and duhr' time will change; but one must make up any days missed upon arriving at one's destination.
  • Women who are pregnant and too physically weak.
  • A woman during her menstural period; although she must count the days she missed and make them up at the end of Ramadan.

Bahá'í faith

In the Bahá'í Faith, fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset during the Bahá'í month of `Ala' (between March 2 through March 20). Bahá'u'lláh established the guidelines in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. It is the complete abstaining from both food and drink (including abstaining from smoking). Observing the fast is an individual obligation, and is binding on all Bahá'ís who have reached the age of maturity, which is fifteen years of age.

Along with obligatory prayer, it is one of the greatest obligations of a Bahá'í. The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, Shoghi Effendi, explains: "It is essentially a period of meditation and prayer, of spiritual recuperation, during which the believer must strive to make the necessary readjustments in his inner life, and to refresh and reinvigorate the spiritual forces latent in his soul. Its significance and purpose are, therefore, fundamentally spiritual in character. Fasting is symbolic, and a reminder of abstinence from selfish and carnal desires."


Fasting is a very integral part of the Hindu religion. Individuals observe different kinds of fasts based on personal beliefs and local customs. Some are listed below.

  • Some Hindus fast on certain days of the month such as Ekadasi or Purnima.
  • Certain days of the week are also set aside for fasting depending on personal belief and favorite deity.
  • Thursday fasting is very common among the [[Hindu][Hindus]] of northern India. On Thursdays devotees listen to a story before breaking their fast. On the Thursday fasters also worship Vrihaspati Mahadeva or Jupiter. They wear yellow clothes, and meals with yellow colour are preferred. Women worship the banana tree and water it. Food items are made with yellow-coloured ghee.
  • Fasting during religious festivals is also very common. Common examples are Maha Shivaratri or the 9 days of Navratri (which occurs twice a year in the months of April and October/November during Vijayadashami just before Diwali, as per the Hindu calendar). Karwa Chauth is a form of fasting unique to the northern part of India where married women undertake a fast for the well-being, prosperity, and longevity of their husbands. The fast is broken after the wife views the moon through a sieve after sunset.

Methods of fasting also vary widely and cover a broad spectrum. If followed strictly, the person fasting does not partake any food or water from the previous day's sunset until 48 minutes after the following day's sunrise. Fasting can also mean limiting oneself to one meal during the day and/or abstaining from eating certain food types and/or eating only certain food types. In any case, even if the fasting Hindu is non-vegetarian, he/she is not supposed to eat or even touch any animal products (i.e. meat, eggs)on a day of fasting.


The "acceptable fast" is discussed in the biblical Book of Isaiah, chapter 58:3-7, and is discussed metaphorically. In essence, it means to abstain from satisfying hunger or thirst, and any other lustful needs we may yearn for. The blessings gained from this are claimed to be substantial. Christian denominations that practice this acceptable fast often attest to the spiritual principles surrounding fasting and seek to become a testament to those principles. The opening chapter of the Book of Daniel, vv. 8-16, describes a partial fast and its effects on the health of its observers. Fasting is a practice in several Christian denominations or other churches. Other Christian denominations do not practice it, seeing it as a merely external observance, but many individual believers choose to observe fasts at various times at their own behest, and the Lenten fast observed in Anglicanism is a forty day partial fast to commemorate the fast observed by Christ during his temptation in the desert.



Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. Concerning that from which one fasts, and the period of fasting, a fast may be total or partial. It may be observed unbroken for many uninterrupted days, or be observed only for certain periods during the day, as is the Muslim practice during the holy month of Ramadan. Depending on the tradition, fasting practices may preclude sexual activity as well as food, in addition to refraining from eating certain types or groups of foods; for example, one might refrain from eating meat. Medical fasting can be a way to promote detoxification.

Fasting for religious and spiritual reasons has been a part of human custom since pre-history. It is mentioned in the Bible, in both the Old and New Testament, the Qur'an, the Mahabharata, and the Upanishads. Fasting is also practiced in many other religious traditions and spiritual practices.

Fasting is also used in a medical context to refer to the state achieved after digestion of a meal. A number of metabolic adjustments occur during fasting and many medical diagnostic tests are standardized for fasting conditions. For most medical purposes a person is assumed to be fasting after 8-12 hours. A diagnostic fast refers to prolonged fasting (from 8-72 hours depending on age) conducted under medical observation for investigation of a problem, usually hypoglycemia. Fasting has occasionally been recommended as a therapeutic intervention by physicians of many cultures, though it is uncommonly resorted to for this purpose by modern doctors.


The three parts of the month of Ramadan

These parts are called ashra (Arabic for ten) which means of ten days or about one third of the month.These are named respectively as

Rahmat: which means mercy of God.

Maghfirat which means forgiveness of God.

Nijat which means salvation or going to heaven.

Eid ul-Fitr

Six days of Shawwal

Muslims are encouraged to fast six days in ‘Shawwal’, the month following Ramadan beginning after Eid ul-Fitr. There are six days of fasting during Shawwal which, together with the Ramadan fasts, are equivalent to fasting "perpetually" (according to Sahih Muslim). Usually, this is taken to mean the whole year. It is a common misconception that the six days of fasting must be undertaken on consecutive days. It is said that fasting six days of Shawwal is like fasting for one full year

Ramadan رمضان


The third pillar of Islam, which is fasting, is practiced during the month of Ramadan. Ramadan is derived from an Arabic word for intense heat and scorched ground. (in Arabic: رمضان, Ramaān) – – and it is the ninth month of the Islamic (Hijri) calendar, established in the year 638 CE. It is considered the most venerated, blessed and spiritually-beneficial month of the Islamic year. Prayers, fasting, charity, and self-accountability are especially stressed at this time; religious observances associated with Ramadan are kept throughout the month.

"Ramadan is the month during which the Quran was revealed, providing guidance for the people, clear teachings, and the statute book. Those of you who wi

tness this month shall fast therein. Those who are ill or traveling may substitute the same number of other days. Allah wishes for you convenience, not hardship, that you may fulfill your obligations, and to glorify Allah for guiding you, and to express your appreciation."[2:185] This is a muslims favorite holiday.

Laylat al-Qadr (Night of Power) is considered the most holy night during Ramadan.

The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, and months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the solar year, Ramadan migrates throughout the seasons.


The most prominent event of this month is the fasting practiced by most observant Muslims. The fasting during Ramadan has been so predominant in defining the month that some have been led to believe the name of this month, Ramadan, is the name of Islamic fasting, when in reality the Arabic term for fasting is Sawm. Every day during the month of Ramadan, Muslims around the world break their fast when the fourth prayer of the day, Maghrib, is due. They eat before the sun comes up at a certain time and they eat Proscriptions and prescriptions during Ramadan

Sultan Ahmet Mosque, Istanbul in Ramadan (the writing with lights called mahya)

During Ramadan, Muslims are also expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam as well as refraining from anger, envy, greed, lust, sarcastic retorts, backstabbing, and gossip. They are encouraged to read the Qur'an. Sexual intercourse during fasting in the day is not allowed but is permissible after the fast (when referring to sexual intercourse, it is intended to mean with one's spouse alone, as all pre- and extra-marital relations are strictly forbidden in Islam). Obscene and irreligious sights and sounds are to be avoided. Purity of both thought and action is important. The fast is intended to be an exacting act of deep personal worship in which Muslims seek a raised level of closeness to God. The act of fasting is said to redirect the heart away from worldly activities, its purpose being to cleanse the inner soul and free it from harm. Properly observing the fast is supposed to induce a comfortable feeling of peace and calm. It also allows Muslims to practice self-discipline, sacrifice, as well as sympathy for those who are less fortunate, intending to make Muslims more generous and charitable.

In addition to fasting, Muslims are encouraged to read the entire Qur'an.

Sunni Muslims tend to perform the recitation of the entire Qur'an by means of special prayers, called Tarawih, which are held in the mosques every night of the month, during which a whole section of the Qur'an (‘Juz', which is 1/30 of the Qur'an) is recited, so that by the end of the month the entire Qur'an has been completed. Tarawih is an Arabic phrase referring to those extra prayers. This prayer is performed after salah of Isha'a. Sunnis believe it is customary to attempt a khatm (complete recitation) of the Qur'an in Ramadan by reciting at least one juz per night in Tarawih. These are done in remembrance of the fact that the revelation of the Qur'an to Prophet Muhammad was begun during Ramadan.

Shia Muslims view this prayer as a Bid'ah and caution all to stay away from it. Instead of performing Tarawih, Shia Muslims perform the night prayer during Ramadan just like any other night. This night prayer performed every night is called Qiyam al-layl, better known as Tahajjud. It must be noted, that Shia Muslims also attempt to read the entire Qur'an by the end of the month.

"The Wizarding World of Harry Potter" Announced via webcast

Sunday, September 09, 2007


Harry Potter

For everyone who has dreamt of walking the streets of Diagon Alley, they soon will have the chance."The Wizarding World of Harry Potter" at Universal's Islands of Adventure theme park will make the magical world of the famous book a reality for its legions of fans. Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. and Universal Orlando Resort are partnering to create the worlds first fully immersive Harry Potter themed environment based on J.K. Rowling's books and the Warner Bros. films. "The Wizarding World of Harry Potter" is expected to open in 2009.

ABC News Homepage

bending the rules together

Wednesday, September 05, 2007


I wrote this poem myself:


Friendship is love,

Without friendship love means nothing!

Without friendship love is empty…

Without friendship love is boring...!

Friendship means sharing…

People learn to share from friendship,

Share everything they have in life,

Friendship is like stars,

Even though we always see them together

Always mean to each other…


Sometimes they argue!

Friendship is like flower,

Soft but strong!

Friendship is like sun,

Bright and beautiful!

Friendship is everything in life,

Life without friendship is like life without air…

Life without friendship is like eats without food


Life without friendship is like body without soul…

Friendship is wide!

Anybody can be our friend,

Our parents, our grandparents, our sister, our brother and even our school principal!


Is everything!

Qistinazaini 4pa (0408)


What is Friendship?

Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. This article focuses on the notion specific to interpersonal relationships. In this sense, the term connotes a relationship which involves mutual knowledge, esteem, and affection. Friends will welcome each other's company and exhibit loyalty towards each other, often to the point of altruism. Their tastes will usually be similar and may converge, and they will share enjoyable activities. They will also engage in mutually helping behavior, such as exchange of advice and the sharing of hardship. A friend is someone who may often demonstrate reciprocating and reflective behaviors. Yet for many, friendship is nothing more than the trust that someone or something will not harm them. Value that is found in friendships is often the result of a friend demonstrating on a consistent basis:
• the tendency to desire what is best for the other,
• sympathy and empathy,
• honesty, perhaps in situations where it may be difficult for others to speak the truth, especially in terms of pointing out the perceived faults of one's counterpart
• mutual understanding.
In a comparison of personal relationships, friendship is considered to be closer than association, although there is a range of degrees of intimacy in both friendships and associations. Friendship and association can be thought of as spanning across the same continuum. The study of friendship is included in sociology, anthropology, philosophy, and zoology. Various theories of friendship have been proposed, among which are social psychology, social exchange theory, equity theory, relational dialectics, and attachment styles.
Types of friendship
• Acquaintance
• Romantic friendship
• Soulmate
• Pen pal
• Internet friendship
• Comrade
• Platonic life-partner
• Friends with benefits
• Sexualized friendship
• Boston marriage
• Blood brotherhood
• Companionate love
• Intimate relationship
• Love
• Platonic love
• Romantic love
• Open relationship
• Roommate
• Spiritual
Friendship make prosperity more shining and lessens adversity by dividing and sharing it.
Cicero, On Friendship, 44 B.C.
Roman author, orator, & politician (106 BC - 43 BC)

p/s everybody has friend and need friend

DORAEMON = Television series

This is one of Doraemon series
Title: Animal Paper(Malay language)

Tuesday, September 04, 2007


Doraemon is my favorite cartoon. I watched it from my age 7. I love the movies and also books. I
have plenty of them.

Doraemon is a Japanese manga series created by Fujiko F. Fujio (the pen name of Hiroshi Fujimoto) which later became an anime series and Asian franchise. The series is about a robotic cat named Doraemon, who travels back in time from the 22nd century to aid a schoolboy, Nobita Nobi. The series first appeared in December 1969, when it was published simultaneously in six different magazines. In total, 1,344 stories were created in the original series, which are published by Shogakukan under the Tentōmushi manga brand, extending to forty-five volumes. The volumes are collected in the Takaoka Central Library in Toyama, Japan, where Fujio was born.

Doraemon was awarded the first Shogakukan Manga Award for children's manga in 1982, and the first Osamu Tezuka Culture Award in 1997.


In December 1969, the Doraemon manga appeared simultaneously in six different children's monthly magazines. The magazines were titled by the year of children's studies, which included Yoiko (good children), Yōchien (nursery school), and Shogaku Ichinensei (first grade) to Shogaku Yonnensei (fourth grade). By 1973, the series began to appear in two more magazines, Shogaku Gonensei (fifth grade) and Shogaku Rokunensei (sixth grade). The stories featured in each of the magazines were different, meaning the author was originally creating more than six stories each month. In 1977, CoroCoro Comic was launched as a magazine of Doraemon. Original manga based on the Doraemon movies were also released in CoroCoro Comic. The stories which are preserved under the Tentōmushi brand are the stories found in these magazines.

Since the debut of Doraemon in 1969, the stories have been selectively collected into forty-five books published from 1974 to 1996, which had a circulation of over 80 million in 1992. In addition, Doraemon has appeared in a variety of manga series by Shōgakukan. In 2005, Shōgakukan published a series of five more manga volumes under the title Doraemon+ (Doraemon Plus), which were not found in the forty-five Tentōmushi volumes.

Plot summary

Doraemon is sent back in time by Nobita Nobi's great-great grandson Sewashi to improve Nobita's circumstances so that his descendants may enjoy a better future. In the original timeline, Nobita's failures in school and subsequently, his career, has left his family line beset with financial problems.

The stories are formulaic, usually focused on the everyday struggles of fourth grader Nobita, the protagonist of the story. Doraemon possesses a fourth-dimensional pocket from which he can produce all manner of futuristic tools, gadgets, and playthings from a future department store. In a typical chapter, Nobita comes home crying about a problem he faces in school or the local neighborhood. After Nobita's pleading or goading, Doraemon produces a device to help Nobita fix his problem, enact revenge, or flaunt to his friends.

Nobita usually goes too far, despite Doraemon's best intentions, and gets into deeper trouble than before. Sometimes, Nobita's friends (usually Suneo or Jaian) steal the gadgets and end up misusing them. However, by the end of the story, there is usually retribution to the characters who end up misusing them, and a moral lesson is taught.

Main characters

Fujiko's friends say that every main character represents elementary school student archetypes Fujiko noticed in his own school days.


Doraemon is the robot cat sent back in time by Sewashi to aid Nobita. Doraemon originally had ears but they were bitten off by a robot mouse back in the 22nd century. As a result, he developed a morbid fear of mice, despite being a robotic cat. He also has the tendency to panic during emergencies, characterized by him frantically trying to pull out a very much-needed tool from his pocket, only to produce a huge assortment of unrelated household items.He is very selfish and lazy and loves to sleep.

Of all the Doraemon characters, Doraemon is the only one to have physically changed since the manga began. At first, he was predominantly blue, with a blue tail, a white stomach, and flesh-coloured hands and feet. He also stooped, and had a body much larger than his head. In later issues, he had a smaller body, white hands and feet, and a red tail.

In "The Doraemons" story arc, it is revealed that Doraemon's original paint color was yellow. After getting his ears gnawed off by a robot mouse, he slipped into depression on top of a tower, where he drank a potion with a label having letters that resembled "sadness". As he cried for a long time, the yellow color washed off and his voice changed due to the potion. He was later greeted by his sister, Dorami.

Doraemon weighs 129.3 kg (285 lbs) and his height is 129. cm (4'3"). He is also able to run at 129.3 km/h (80.3 mi/h) when scared, and jump 129.3 m (424.2 ft) when threatened. He was manufactured on September 3, 2112 (12/9/3), at the Matsushiba Robot Factory.

Doraemon's favourite food is dorayaki a Japanese treat filled with red bean paste, which is often used to make Doraemon do things he is otherwise reluctant to do. Speculations led to dorayaki being the origin of his name. However, it was revealed in one of the manga that his name originates from a Japanese word for "stray cat", dora neko, and the -emon ending which is part of traditional Japanese names, as seen also in, for example, Ishikawa Goemon.

Nobita Nobi (Nobi Nobita)

Nobita is another main character of the series. He is a fourth grader in Tokyo and an only child. He wears glasses, a red or yellow polo shirt with a white collar, and blue shorts. Nobita's character flaws are endless. He is lazy, uncoordinated, dim-witted, frail, plain-looking, unlucky, and bad at sports. Nobita's normal day consists of arriving late to class, scoring zeros on his exam, getting yelled at by his teacher, being bullied by classmates Jaian and Suneo, falling into curbside rain gutters, being chased by dogs, and getting yelled at by his mom for refusing to do his homework. However, his flaws and struggles are what drive the storyline. Nobita does possess some unique talents such as his unrivaled marksmanship and string figure weaving. Although Nobita is frequently portrayed as being cowardly, he has a strong sense of justice and will sometimes risk his life to help save others or entire civilizations, which is shown in full-length stories. Nobita sometimes accidently or deliberately goes into the Shizuka's House Bathroom while Shizuka is having a bath.

Shizuka Minamoto (Minamoto Shizuka

Shizuka, usually called Shizu-chan or Shizuka-chan, is a smart and kind girl who is the object of Nobita's affections as well as his future bride. She bathes every morning, noon, afternoon, and evening, which leads to numerous accidental bath scenes. She is also known for taking piano lessons unwillingly, which is sometimes used as an excuse for declining to hang out with Nobita. Her true passions are sweet potatoes and the violin, in which her playing is as bad as Gian is at singing.

Takeshi Goda (Gōda Takeshi)

Takeshi, usually known by the nickname Gian (ジャイアン, Jaian) (Giant), is big, strong, and quick-tempered. His nickname might mean giant. He usually wears an orange shirt. He is known for his confidence in his terrible singing and cooking. He regularly subjects the neighborhood children to horrendous singing recitals, which is sometimes combined with his homemade dinner. Many of the stories revolve around Nobita and his friends' efforts to avoid Gian's concerts.

He also frequently steals other children's toys and books under the pretext of "borrowing" it, unless the toy is damaged. However, he still has a strong sense of justice and comradeship, and will not hesitate to help Nobita and his friends when they are in real trouble, which often occurs in the movies. Although he bullies the other children (mostly Nobita), he is terrified of his mother, who runs the local grocery store. He founded his own baseball team named after himself. Although Nobita is often blamed for the loss against the baseball team's rival, the "Tyranos", Gian and Suneo still force Nobita to play because they do not have enough players.

Gian has a younger sister named Jaiko, whom he adores.

Suneo Honekawa (Honekawa Suneo)

Suneo is the braggart who parades his material wealth in front of Nobita. He is often seen with Gian, who he bullies Nobita with; he actually hates Gian very much, so helping Gian to bully Nobita is probably to avoid suffering the same fate himself. Several stories start with Suneo showing off some new video game, toy, or electronic device his family has bought, or him needing Doraemon's help. He has an extensive knowledge of science, and he is a talented artist and designer. He also has a younger brother Sunetsugu who was adopted into his uncle's family in New York.

In some scenes, Suneo is seen as a narcissist who loves to stare at himself in the mirror while telling himself that he is the most handsome guy in the world. He is still a bed-wetter and needs to wear diapers when he sleeps, despite being in the fourth grade. He considers this as his secret weakness, and according to his mother, it is his only weakness.

Doraemon can take out various devices known as dōgu from his fourth-dimensional pocket. Some of the gadgets are based on real Japanese household devices with fanciful twists, while most are gadgets which are completely science fiction. (Although some may be based on folklore or religious stories). Examples of gadgets are one used to affect the outcome of fights on television or walk on clouds.

Thousands of dōgu have been featured in Doraemon. Some have placed the estimation at approximately 4,500 different dōgu used in Doraemon. It is because of this that Doraemon remains popular even among adult viewers.

Recurring Dōgu

Fourth-dimensional pocket

The inside of this pocket connects to the fourth dimension and acts like a wormhole. It is usually shown attached to Doraemon's abdomen. Doraemon has a spare pocket which connects to the same location.

Time machine

The exit of Doraemon's time machine is in Nobita's desk drawer. The time machine looks like a simple platform with a control console, and a clock with five hands overhanging the console. Doraemon is often seen piloting the time machine. Dorami has her own time machine shaped like a tulip, suggesting a variety of models available in the future. The time machine can create an exit in a specific place spatially as well as temporally. An alternative to the time machine is the time belt, which does not change the wearer's location relative to Earth. The presence of this machine is not known by Nobita's mother (The long story about robots from another planet attacking the earth, shows that when Shizuka took a robot girl to the time machine while Nobita's mother was cleaning his room, Nobita's mother could not understand what happened for the two girls have got into the drawer. A short story showing that when Nobita's mother wanted to punish him, he escaped by hiding into the drawer.)


One of the main modes of transportation for the various characters is the take-copter, which combines the words taketombo , taketombo lit. bamboo dragonfly, the Japanese name for the bamboo-copter), and part of the word herikoputā which means helicopter. The take-copter was also called the heri-tombo in early stories. The device is a propeller attached to a tiny suction cup which can be attached to enable flight. Ever since the first few Doraemon stories, the take-copter is seen attached to the head instead of the waist, similar to a propeller beanie, due to a mishap with Nobita's shorts. The take-copter has also been attached to objects to enable its flight. One of its disadvantage is its short battery life.


The moshimo-box is a pun based on the Japanese greeting used on the telephone moshi moshi, and the phrase meaning "what if", or moshimo. The device is a telephone booth where the characters dial a number and propose a "what if" scenario which alters the world. Nobita has wished for a world where money was not necessary, and purchasing an item meant receiving cash, and being robbed meant being forced to take cash, causing store clerks to force cash onto his hands upon attempting to purchase toys. Nobita has also wished for a world without mirrors, and for a world where lazy people who napped would be hailed as celebrities. But any situation caused by using this telephone booth may be reverted by using this telephone to make a phone call to request for "Reverting/Restoring to the original situation". This uses to be the ending of the story that mentions about the telephone booth.

Dokodemo door

One of Doraemon's most commonly used gadgets is the dokodemo door, a door which allows travel to anywhere by simply going through the door. In an early story, the door is able to travel to the end of the universe, but in later chapters, the door is said to only be able to travel a maximum distance of 100,000 light years and cannot access other dimensions. Another limitation of the door is that it can only safely connect two known locations in its mapping computer, which also has a limited range of information based on Time as shown in the movie "Nobita's Dinosaur."

Time Furoshiki

Another gadget often used by Doraemon, this is a cloth with two different coloured sides (in the anime, red and purple), with patterns of a clock over it. If an object is wrapped around with one face outward, it would reverse the flow of time in the cloth, causing the object to become newer. If wrapped around the other way, it would speed up the flow of time, causing the object to become older. It was first used by Nobita to turn old appliances to new appliances to make money, but its uses extend to do many other things, such as converting an object back to its starting material, repairing broken machinery, aging or de-aging people over a short time, restore Fossils over 10,000 years, etc.

Small light

Small light, is a lamp similar to a flashlight that will shrink objects and people to minuscule sizes. Its opposite is the big light which enlarges objects and people. Another tool that is used in a similar capacity is "Gulliver's Tunnel which causes a person to grow or shrink depending on which entrance he takes, however its ratio of shrinking and enlarging is fixed.

Pass Loop

A loop which creates a passage through a solid object such as a wall when placed upon it.

Air cannon

A gun barrel worn on the arm used to fire a powerful burst of air which can knock out the victim when the user says "bang". Later models, featured in the long manga and movies, are fired with a trigger.

Translation konjac

A piece of konjac jelly which enables a person to understand and speak any known language in the universe. The effect begins after the person ingests the jelly, but the duration of the effect is unknown. While the ones Doraemon uses are usually unflavored, in the story Nobita's Birth of Japan (のび太の日本誕生, Nobita's Birth of Japan), he used one labeled to be miso flavored, suggesting the existence of various flavors, which are more expensive.

Dress-Up Camera

A camera that uses a picture of clothing instead of film, and changes the clothes of the person in the viewfinder to the clothing in the picture. It may also be used with no picture or an incomplete picture, with embarrassing results. The story about Doraemon's four-dimensional dustbin shows that the damaged camera will make the person naked - While Shizuka used the damaged camera on Nobita, he turned naked. The camera is often used in the long stories and movies, where the gang must disguise themselves in unfamiliar places to avoid attracting undue attention, or to provide with a second change of clothes such as Bathing suits.

Other appearances

Doraemon is a popular character in Japan and can be seen in many places. For example, Doraemon is used as a promotional character by Art Hikkoshi Center by a removals company, and by Cocos, a restaurant chain. Doraemon also appears in appeals for charity, the "Doraemon Fund". Doraemon toys and novelties are also often found in Japan, with literally thousands of items for sale.

Doraemon, Nobita, and the other characters also appear in various educational manga.

There are nearly 50 Japanese only video games ranging from Action Adventure, to RPG games, that began with the Emerson's Arcadia 2001 system. For a complete list of these games see List of Doraemon media.

Doraemon is also mentioned in many manga and anime by other mangakas.

In a few episodes some characters from Shin Chan Are Issued in the episode revealing some of the TV show clips


These are my Siblings,
My older sister, Hamduna Zaini but i called her kakna. She is 18 years old, pretty but hot tempered. I have two younger sisters,
silmina zaini @ mimi (14 years old) and Syukrina zaini @ yin (12 years old). Both of them are beautifull.
I also have a younger brother name adil zaini
i called him adil. He is 8 years old, handsome and chubby (like me).

All my sisters and brother called me Qisti
also my father and mother.
Sometimes my mother called me adik...
he he he...


this poem is from my friend and i really like it, it is one of his favorite poem.
It makes me feel better when i felt sad or down.

The Journey

One day you finally knew
what you had to do, and began,
though the voices around you
kept shouting
their bad advice—
though the whole house
began to tremble
and you felt the old tug
at your ankles.
“Mend my life! ”
each voice cried.
But you didn’t stop.
You knew what you had to do,
though the wind pried
with its stiff fingers
at the very foundations,
though their melancholy
was terrible.
It was already late
enough, and a wild night,
and the road full of fallen
branches and stones.
But little by little,
as you left their voices behind,
the stars began to burn
through the sheets of clouds,
and there was a new voice
which you slowly
recognized as your own,
that kept you company
as you strode deeper and deeper
into the world,
determined to do
the only thing you could do—
determined to save
the only life you could save.

p/s thanks peter,


Selamat harijadi Miemie
Happy Birthday Miemie
Otanjoubiomedetougozaimasu, Miemie

Each year your birthday reminds me
That I really want to say
I’m very glad I know you;
I think of you each day.

I hope you enjoy your birthday,
All the pleasures it has in store,
And because I appreciate you,
I hope you have many more!

By Joanna Fuchs

Sunday, September 02, 2007

Sejarah Tanah Melayu & Kemerdekaan Tanah Melayu

Pada 31 Ogos 1957, Tanah Melayu telah mencipta sejarah apabila Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perdana Menteri Pertama Malaya) mengisytiharkan kemerdekaan Malaya dengan tujuh teriakan "Merdeka"pada hari yang bersejarah itu.

Penjajahan Malaya bermula apabila pada tahun 1509, Diego Lopez de Sequiera dengan 18 buah kapal dari Angkatan diRaja Portugal tiba di Melaka. Oleh kerana orang-orang Portugis membuat kacau di Melaka seperti mengusik gadis-gadis dan mencuri, disamping perselisihan faham, Sultan Mahmud Shah kemudiannya mengarahkan supaya orang-orang Portugis dihalau dari Melaka. Angkatan Portugis diserang dan 20 anak kapalnya ditahan. Tetapi orang-orang portugis membalas dengan menyerang Melaka. Melaka gagal bertahan dan jatuh ketangan Portugis. Dari itulah bermulanya penjajahan di Tanah Melayu.

Selepas Portugis, Tanah Melayu dijajah pula oleh British. British menjajah Tanah Melayu bermula dengan campur tangan british dalam hal ehwal Tanah Melayu. Campur tangan British dalam hal ehwal negeri-negeri Melayu telah membawa kepada pemindahan kuasa pentadbiran daripada Raja-Raja Melayu kepada pegawai-pegawai yang dilantik oleh pihak British untuk mentadbir dan menguruskan semua aspek pentadbiran negeri-negeri Melayu kecuali pengurusan agama Islam dan juga adat resam orang-orang Melayu.

Campur tangan ini kemudiannya membawa kepada penjajahan sepenuhnya negeri-negeri Melayu di bawah penguasaan British. Peneyrahan kuasa ini dibuat secara rela oleh Raja-Raja Melayu dengan hanya mendapat janji-janji palsu dan pemberian pencen kecil yang diberikan oleh Kerajaan British.

8 Disember 1941 semasa Perang Dunia II. Penjajahan Jepun bermula walaupun merupakan satu turutan pertempuran yang singkat tetapi sengit dan merupakan satu detik perubahan antara pemerintahan daripada orang putih (British) kepada pemerintah Jepun. Ini merupakan konsep baru yang tidak pernah terlintas dalam pemikiran orang-orang Melayu umum, pemerintahan oleh bangsa lain selain daripada mereka yang berkulit putih, sebelum ini.


Parti Komunis Malaya yang ditubuhkan pada 20 April 1930 telah bekerjasama dengan pihak British untuk menentang Jepun melalui Tentera Anti-Jepun Rakyat Tanah Melayu (MPAJA) berdasarkan perjanjian yang dibuat pada 8 Disember 1940.

Menerusi MPAJA, bantuan senjata, latihan, kewangan, bekalan lojistik dan perubatan telah diperolehi dari British. Dalam tempoh 3 tahun kekuatan tentera MPAJA dianggarkan sebanyak 7,000 anggota dan tidak hairanlah apabila darurat berlaku pihak British dan anggota pasukan keselamatan terpaksa berhadapan dengan kesukaran menghapuskan sekumpulan tentera yang telah dilatih untuk berperang.

Selepas Jepun menyerah kalah, Parti Komunis Malaya telah mengambil kesempatan untuk berkuasa menerusi gerila-gerila MPAJA. Beberapa siri keganasan dan rusuhan serta pergaduhan antara kaum telah berlaku di Tanah Melayu, terutamanya di bahagian selatan Tanah Melayu. Akibatnya, orang-orang Melayu mulai bertindak-balas terhadap kekejaman anggota komunis Bintang Tiga, seperti pasukan yang diketuai oleh Panglima Salleh Selempang Merah. Kembalinya British dengan pentadbiran tenteranya (BMA) dalam tempoh yang singkat menyebabkan komunis Bintang Tiga tidak berjaya mengembangkan pengaruh mereka. Akibat kegagalan komunis Bintang Tiga merampas Tanah Melayu dengan gerakan bersenjata, telah membawa kepada persetujuan pembubaran tentera MPAJA dan perletakan senjata api disamping pembayaran saguhati kepada gerila-gerila terbabit.

Bagi meraih simpati, mengindoktrinasi fahaman komunis dan mendapatkan sokongan orang-orang Melayu, pihak Parti Komunis Malaya telah mengasaskan Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya (PKMM) yang diasaskan oleh Ahmad Boestamam berfahaman kebangsaan dan Mokhtaruddin Lasso (MPAJA) berfahaman komunis pada 17 Oktober 1945. Parti Komunis Malaya telah menguasai Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya melalui tokoh-tokoh jawatankuasanya yang terdiri daripada Mokhtaruddin Lasso (Presiden), Arshad Ashaari (bendahari), Rashid Maidin, Abdullah C.D. Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya lebih cenderung bagi Tanah Melayu menyertai Indonesia bagi mendapat kemerdekaan pada 1949.

Terbentuknya Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada 1 Februari 1948 merupakan kekalahan kepada Parti Komunis Malaya kerana golongan ini telah diketepikan oleh British. Parti Komunis Malaya telah menukar strategi dan mula mencetuskan kegagasan melalui mogok dan rusuhan. Pihak British bertindak balas dengan mengharamkan pemimpin politik daripada mengetuai kesatuan pekerja, dengan itu melemahkan kedudukan komunis Bintang Tiga.

Pihak komunis Bintang Tiga kemudiannya mulai mengangkat senjata dan beberapa siri serangan dan serangan telah berlaku. Bagaimana pun, insiden pada 16 Jun 1948 iaitu pembunuhan tiga orang pengurus estet berbangsa Eropah di Sungai Siput, Perak telah membawa kepada pengistiharan darurat oleh Sir Edward Gent. Apabila keadaan bertambah teruk, pada 12 Julai 1948, darurat diistiharkan ke seluruh negara. Parti Komunis Malaya telah diharamkan pada 23 Julai 1948. Seluruh angkatan bersenjata telah digerakkan termasuk Senoi Praaq bagi menentang komunis.

Akibat kesukaran dan kekurangan sokongan dari masyarakat, pemimpin Parti Komunis Malaya, Chin Peng telah meminta perundingan diadakan pada tahun 1955. Rundingan Baling ini yang diadakan pada 28-29 Disember 1955 tidak membawa apa-apa keputusan drastik. Ini disebabkan kerajaan menawarkan pengampunan dengan syarat Parti Komunis Malaya dibubarkan, tetapi Chin Peng pula meminta Parti Komunis Malaya dibenarkan untuk bergerak sebagai sebuah parti politik. Pihak kerajaan yang telahpun mencapai kemajuan dalam membasmikan Parti Komunis Malaya, dan menimbangkan kekejaman Parti Komunis Malaya terhadap rakyat sebelumnya, menolak usul membenarkan Parti Komunis Malaya dibenarkan bergerak sebagai sebuah parti politik. Tunku kemudiannya menegaskan kepada rakyat bahawa Parti Komunis Malaya bertindak menentang kerajaan sah yang telah dipilih rakyat dan merdeka daripada penjajahan British.

Tanah Melayu mencapai kemerdekaan pada 31 Ogos 1957 ketika darurat masih lagi berkuatkuasa. Pada 31 Julai 1960, darurat ditamatkan setelah ancaman komunis semakin berkurangan dan pengunduran mereka ke sempadan Tanah Melayu dan Thailand. Penempatan baru komunis di sempadan telah membolehkan mereka mengumpul dan memulihkan kekuatannya.

Selepas sekian lama dan atas kesedaran pucuk pimpinan Parti Komunis Malaya, maka pada 2 Disember 1989, Perjanjian Damai (Perjanjian Haadyai) telah ditandatangani di antara Parti Komunis Malaya dengan Kerajaan Malaysia dan Kerajaan Thailand. Perjanjian bersejarah itu telah menamatkan perjuangan bersenjata Parti Komunis Malaya selama 41 tahun dan mengembalikan taat setianya kepada Yang DiPertuan Agung dan patuh kepada Perlembagaan dan undang-undang negara.

Tanah Melayu sekali lagi dijajah oleh British,Edward Gent Penolong Setiausaha Rendah Tetap bagi Tanah Jajahan British telah mengumumkan cadangan penubuhan Malayan union. buat pertama kali di Parlimen United Kingdom pada Januari 1944. Wilayah-wilayah Borneo juga dimasukkan dalam rancangan yang asal tetapi pemasukan itu kemudian dikeluarkan daripada cadangan yang terakhir kerana merumitkan cadangan Union yang sudah cukup susah. Pada musim bunga 1944, Pejabat Kolonial menjemput Sir Harold MacMichael, untuk pergi ke Tanah Melayu untuk mendapatkan tandatangan daripda raja-raja Melayu. Sir Harold Macmicheal bukanlah seorang yang arif tentang Tanah Melayu, beliau tidak pernah berkhidmat di Tanah Melayu. Tetapi kerajaan British yang kerap menerima maklumat salah mengenai Tanah Melayu dan orang Melayu percaya bahawa Sir MacMicheal pernah berkenalan baik dengan beberapa putera-putera dari Tanah Melayu. Pada 3 September 1945, ketika pihak British sedang menjalani pendudukan semula di Tanah Melayu, Kabinet British memberikan kebenaran untuk dasar Tanah Melayu yang baru dan bersetuju dengan misi MacMichael.

Memperoleh tandatangan daripada sultan-sultan tidak sebegitu susah seperti yang dijangka. Mac Michael telah bertindak memaksakan sultan-sultan Melayu untuk menerima cadangan-cadangan pihak British dan tidak memberikan masa untuk baginda-baginda berunding dengan majlis masing-masing, malah Sultan yang enggan menandatangani perjanjian tersebut diugut akan digantikan dengan sultan yang lain di atas tuduhan bekerjasama dengan Jepun semasa Perang Dunia II. Pada 21 Disember, setiap Sultan atau Pemangku Raja telah memeterai perjanjian yang baru dengan Sir Harold MacMicheal. Bagaimanapun, sebilangan daripada sultan-sultan itu menyatakan keraguan terhadap syarat-syarat perjanjian itu, tetapi disebabkan oleh ugutan yang mendakwa pe baginda-baginda sultan memainkan peranan semasa pendudukan Jepun di Tanah Melayu telah memaksa sultan-sultan itu untuk merelakan Malayan Union untuk menunjukkan kesetiaan mereka kepada pihak British dan mereka juga bimbang akan kehilangan tahta. Tanpa disedari oleh sultan-sultan ini ialah semua perjanjian terdahulu yang mengakui hak kedaulatan sultan-sultan Melayu dimansuhkan. Dengan itu, kepura-puraan pihak British bahawa mereka ingin membantu sultan-sultan Melayu untuk memerintah dihapuskan.

Setelah menerima perjanjian-perjanjian itu, pihak British mendedahkan rancangan Malayan Union dalam suatu Kertas Putih pada akhir bulan Januari 1946.


Rancangan Malayan Union yang akan melibatkan Negeri-Negeri Selat, tetapi tidak termasuk Singapura, akan terdiri daripada Majlis Perundangan dan Majlis Mesyuarat Kerajaan yang diketuai oleh seorang Gabenor British. Sultan-sultan Melayu masih akan mengekalkan kedudukan masing-masing tetapi dalam bidang kuasa yang sangat terhad, iaitu berkaitan tentang agama Islam dan adat Istiadat orang Melayu sahaja. Sebaliknya pihak British akan terus memerintah melalui sebuah majlis penasihat yang diluluskan oleh gabenor Malayan Union. Kerajaan Malayan Union akan mengambil alih semua aset negeri-negeri Melayu, kecuali aset yang berkaitan dengan agama Islam dan harta peribadi sultan-sultan. Di Pulau Pinang dan Melaka yang tidak mempunyai sultan, Pesuruhjaya Residen akan menjadi ketua pentadbiran. Beliau diberi banyak kuasa dan hanya bertanggungjawab kepada Gabenor. Ini sekaligus menunjukan kedaulatan British di Tanah Melayu. Di mana pihak British bertindak mengawal semua perkara mengenai Tanah Melayu. Dan mereka lebih berkuasa berbanding sebelum pendudukan Jepun.

Skim Malayan Union juga mencadangkan undang-undang baru yang memberikan kewarganegaraan kepada semua orang yang dilahirkan di Tanah Melayu dan Singapura, serta pendatang yang tinggal di sana selama sekurang-kurang 10 tahun daripada 15 tahun sebelum 15 Februari 1942. Semua warganegara Malayan Union yang baru itu akan mempunyai hak-hak yang sama, termasuk penerimaan masuk untuk perkhidmatan awam. Akhir sekali, kewarganegaran Tanah Melayu diberikan kepada semua tanpa diskriminasi ras dan kepercayaan atau pun turut dikenali sebagai 'jus soli'.

Gerak balas daripada kaum Melayu

Bertentangan dengan jangkaan British, penduduk Melayu, yang biasanya bersikap lemah lembut dan sering boleh di arah untuk melakukan itu dan ini telah bangun bersama-sama untuk membantah skim yang baru itu. Komuniti Cina dan India juga tidak ghairah dan telah mengkritik sesetengah peruntukan yang terdapat di dalam kertas putih Malayan Union. Pemimpin-pemimpin Melayu dan pesara-pesara British daripada Perkhidmatan Awam di Tanah Melayu telah mengetuai bidasan terhadap rancangan Malayan Union, dan membidas MacMichael kerana menggunakan 'ugutan' untuk memperolehi persetujuan daripada sultan-sultan Melayu. Pegawai-pegawai ini bertindak meLobi Tanah Melayu di Parlimen antara bekas pegawai-pegawai Perkhidmatan Awam Tanah Melayu yang mengambil bahagian adalah Frank Swettenham, George Maxwell, R. O. W. Winstedt, Cecil Clementi dan Laurence Guillemard. Mereka turut menulis surat-surat kepada akhbar nasional dan untuk merayu kepada Perdana Menteri United Kingdom agar menghentikan usaha menukar status Tanah Melayu daripada negeri naungan kepada tanah jajahan. Kegiatan seumpama ini mewujudkan tanggapan bahawa terdapat tentangan yang hebat terhadap Malayan Union bukan sahaja daripada penduduk Tanah Melayu malahan daripada pegawai dalaman British sendiri.

Sultan-sultan Tanah Melayu juga telah terpengaruh oleh perasaan anti Malayan Union yang dianjurkan oleh pegawai-pegawai Melayu dan rakyat Melayu. ini mengheret baginda sultan untuk membantah secara terbuka terhadap cara yang digunakan oleh MacMichael untuk memperoleh tandatangan baginda-baginda untuk perjanjian baru itu. Sultan-sultan tersebut menolak rancangan Malayan Union dan cadangan untuk menghantar sutu perwakilan ke London untuk memansuhkan rancangan itu telah disuarakan. Bagaimanapun, sudut pandangan orang Melayu disampaikan dengan lebih berkesan selepas penubuhan UMNO atau PEKEMBAR yang telah muncul untuk menyuarakan bantahan Melayu terhadap Malayan Union.

Pihak British sangat terperanjat dengan perubahan sikap masyarakat Melayu. Selepas pendudukan Jepun orang-orang Melayu telah sedar bahawa pihak British tidaklah sekuat yang di sangka, ditambah pula oleh semangat untuk merdeka yang bertiup kencang dari tanah seberang (indonesia). Di atas kesedaran inilah Orang-orang Melayu telah bangun bersama-sama untuk menentang cadangan pihak British. Tindakan yang kemas telah dilancarkan melalui UMNO. Negeri-negeri Melayu yang selama ini terpisah dan tidak bersatu telah bangun bersama-sama, malahan sultan-sultan negeri-negeri Melayu juga turut bersama-sama bergabung dengan rakyat Melayu untuk menentang Malayan Union. Satu perkara yang tidak pernah terjadi di Tanah Melayu sebelumnya.

Perjuangan orang-orang Melayu tidak terhenti setakat itu sahaja, orang Melayu turut mengadakan ceramah-ceramah umum di seluruh semenanjung untuk menyedarkan masyarakat Melayu di kampung-kampung. Selepas menerima tekanan yang begitu kuat, pihak British yang masih ingin meneruskan Malayan Union mencadangkan satu jawatankuasa dihantar untuk melihat reaksi masyarakat Melayu. Ahli jawatankuasa tersebut telah terkejut melihat reaksi yang amat kuat dari orang melayu untuk menghentikan Malayan Union. di mana sahaja mereka pergi pasti disambut dengan ribuan umat melayu dengan slogan-slogan anti Malayan Union. Malahan mereka dan Gabenor Malayan Union ketika itu turut bersimpati dengan orang-orang Melayu. Pada akhir lawatan tersebut, ahli jawatankuasa terbabit telah mengambarkan sesuatu yang positif di dalam ucapan mereka. Ramai orang melayu dan UMNO sendiri yakin bahawa Malayan Union akan berkubur.

Penubuhan UMNO

Pada 1 Mac 1946, sebuah Kongres Melayu Seluruh Tanah Melayu (Pan-Malayan Malay Congress) diadakan di di Kelab Sultan Suleiman, Kuala Lumpur. Disertai oleh kira-kira 200 orang wakil Melayu daripada 41 buah persatuan, kongres itu membincangkan pembentukan gerakan nasional Melayu, serta kempen terselaras untuk menentang Malayan Union. Sebuah jawatankuasa dilantik untuk mendraf perlembagaan untuk penubuhan Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu (UMNO).

Pada 1 Mei 1946, Kongres Melayu Seluruh Tanah Melayu Ke-2 diadakan di Johor Bahru. Dalam kongres itu, pembentukan UMNO diisytiharkan dan Dato Onn Jaafar, Menteri Besar Johor, dipilih sebagai Presiden pertama. Kongres itu juga mengisytiharkan bahawa perjanjian-perjanjian MacMichael tidak sah dan mendesak bahawa Malayan Union dimansuhkan.

Pelaksanaan Malayan Union

Meskipun penentangan orang-orang Melayu begitu hebat, kerajaan British enggan menarik balik pelakasanaan rancangan Malayan Union. Sebaliknya, kerajaan British mendesak bahawa Malayan Union dilaksanakan dengan segera supaya Pentadbiran Tentera British yang memerintah Tanah Melayu sejak akhir Pendudukan Jepun dapat dibatalkan.

Malayan Union diisytiharkan pada 1 April 1946 dengan Edward Gent merupakan Gabernor yang pertama. Bagaimanapun, penentangan terhadap Malayan Union adalah sangat kuat sehingga rancangan itu tidak dapat dikuatkuasakan dengan sepenuhnya. Malah pada majlis perlantikan Edward Gent sebagai Gabernor yang pertama majlis tersebut telah dipulau oleh sultan-sultan Melayu. Ia adalah kesan daripada tindakan orang-orang Melayu yang telah berhimpun di luar rumah tumpangan yang didiami oleh sultan-sultan Melayu yang ingin menghadiri ucapara perlantikan tersebut. Ketika itu Orang-orang melayu telah bertindak berkabung dengan cara melilit kain putih pada songkok. Orang-orang Melayu yang berkumpul itu telah menghantar wakil mereka iaitu Dato' Onn Jaafar untuk berunding dengan sultan-sultan agar turut memulaukan upacara tersebut. Melihatkan sokongan rakyat yang begitu kuat mempertahankan tahta mereka, telah menyedarkan sekelian baginda sultan untuk turut berjuang bersama-sama rakyat jelata untuk menggagalkan Malayan Union. Akhirnya,Malayan Union dibatalkan pada 1 Februari 1948 selepas itu untuk mengantikan Malayan Union yang telah gagal itu pihak British terpaksa menurut kehendak masyarakat Melayu yang bertindak melalui UMNO untuk mengwujudkan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu . Penggantian konsep Persekutuan Tanah Melayu yang baru itu dengan skim Malayan Union yang tidak popular dicapai, melalui perundingan antara pihak British, sultan-sultan Melayu dan UMNO.

Pembentukan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu merupakan suatu kemenangan untuk orang-orang Melayu tetapi disambut dengan kecewa oleh beberapa golongan-golongandi dalam etnik yang lain. Bagaimanapun, mereka yang menentang cadangan Persekutuan tidak mempunyai sokongan di Tanah Melayu sendiri. Serta lobi Parlimen dan penyokong-penyokong di London yang telah membantu dalam pembatalan skim Malayan Union.

MERDEKA !!!!!!!

Pada tahun 1954, Tunku Abdul Rahman mengetuai sekumpulan perwakilan ke London untuk memperolehi kemerdekaan Malaya. Bagaimanapun, percubaan sulung itu tidak berjaya. Pada tahun yang berikut, pilihan raya persekutan yang pertama diadakan. Parti Perikatan yang pada saat itu merupakan parti campuran UMNO dengan MCA memenangi 51 daripada 52 kerusi yang ditandingi. Tunku dilantik sebagai Ketua Menteri Malaya yang pertama. MIC yang mewakili kaum India kemudian menyertai Parti Perikatan pada tahun 1955.

Pada tahun 1955, Tunku membuat lagi satu perjalanan ke London untuk berunding tentang kemerdekaan Malaya. Pada kali ini, beliau berjaya, dan 31 Ogos 1957 diputuskan sebagai tarikh kemerdekaan. Sewaktu bendera British diturun di Kuala Lumpur pada hari kemerdekaan, Tunku mengetuai orang ramai untuk menyorak "Merdeka!". Gambar-gambar Tunku dengan tangan yang diangkat naik, dan perakaman-perakaman suaranya yang penuh emosi tetapi berazam mengetuai sorakan, kini merupakan lambang kemerdekaan Malaysia yang biasa.

Upacara Pengisytiharan

Pada 31 Ogos 1957 bertempat di stadium yang baru dirasmikan iaitu Stadium Merdeka, Kuala Lumpur telah menyaksikan peristiwa bersejarah bagi Tanah Melayu iaitu secara rasminya penyerahan pemerintahan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu daripada pemerintahan British kepada warganegara Tanah Melayu.

Hujan lebat yang turun sejak 3 pagi menyukarkan pergerakan dan sehingga 6.30 pagi, stadium masih belum dipenuhi oleh pengunjung. Ini menyebabkan upacara telah ditangguhkan selama sejam dan pengumuman majlis bermula kedengaran bukan pada pukul tujuh seperti yang dijangka tetapi pada pukul lapan. 2,000 orang tentera Persekutuan menumpang di sekolah-sekolah berhampiran stadium sebelum itu berarak dalam hujan dan tujuh batalion yang membuat perarakan ketika itu iaitu Rejimen Persekutuan, Skuadron Isyarat, Skuadron Jurutera, Tentera Laut Diraja Tanah Melayu, Tentera Laut Simpanan Diraja Tanah Melayu dan Askar Sivil Persekutuan.

Pada pukul 8, para media telah diberi pengumuman untuk bersedia dan semua peralatan kamera dan media ketika itu dipasang dengan perlindungan plastik atau pelapik kalis air lain di sekitar padang yang lembap. Kebetulan, hujan reda yang memungkin segala persiapan sebelum upacara bermula dapat dijalankan dengan mudah. Pengunjung bertambah ramai untuk menyaksikan upacara bersejarah ini.

Antara kumpulan pengunjung yang tiba di stadium adalah Kadet, Pengakap Laut (dengan pakaian putih, topi putih dan seluar pendek berwarna biru), Pandu Puteri (berpakaian biru muda), Pengakap (dengan kain skaf, berwarna merah dan emas, merah dan hitam, merah dan biru, merah dan putih), Pasukan Briged St. John's Ambulance dan Palang Merah British turut mengambil tempat di sisi stadium manakala kumpulan pancaragam dan pengawal kehormat berada di susur terowong masuk.

Kemudian, tetamu-temamu kehormat mula tiba Lord Chancellor dari England berpakaian yang sama seperti ketika dia menjadi hakim Mahkamah Tinggi Persekutuan. Pemangku Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan merupakan Raja Melayu yang pertama berangkat tiba diikuti Tengku Mahkota Johor (dalam pakaian uniform tentera baginda) yang menggantikan Sultan Johor, Sultan Perak (berpakaian berwarna krim), Sultan Terengganu (berpakaian emas bersama merah gelap dan hijau), Sultan Kelantan (berpakaian emas pucat), Sultan Kedah (berpakaian biru dan perak) Raja Perlis (berpakaian emas), Sultan Pahang (berwarna merah senduduk dan dan perak) serta yang akhir sekali, baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong yang berpakaian perang serta memakai keris yang baru. Setiap daripada baginda diiringi bunyi nafiri dan berdiri di bawah payung kuning keemasan sambil Yang di-Pertuan Agong berjalan ke tempat duduk baginda. Pengunjung stadium masih lagi berdiri apabila Duke of Gloucester masuk sambil diiringi Sir Donald MacGillivray. Dengan ketibaan semua tetamu diraja, upacara Pengisytiharan dimulakan.

Adikung Duke membawa peralatan perlembagaan yang menyatakan pengunduran daripada perlindungan British terhadap negeri-negeri Melayu dan kedaulatan terhadap Pulau Pinang dan Melaka. Raja-raja Melayu mula melangkah ke pentas dan Duke mengambil tempat di depan pentas sambil menerima hormat diraja sambil diiringi oleh Sir Donald MacGillivray. Ketika itu merupakan kali terakhir satu-satu upacara negara menyanyikan lagi kebangsaan British di Persekutuan Tanah Melayu. Kemudian, baginda Duke membacakan perutusan daripada baginda Ratu Elizabeth II akan pernyataan baginda yang mengalukan kemasukan Persekutuan ke dalam Komanwel dan mendoakan kejayaan negara ini.

Kemudian, Perdama Menteri Tunku Abdul Rahman bangun dari tempat duduknya dan menerima watikah perlembagaan sebagai lambang penyerahan kuasa pemerintahan sepenuhnya kepada Persekutuan Tanah Melayu. Duke mengambil tempat duduk dan Tunku mulakan ucapannya dalam bahasa Inggeris. Setelah Tunku mengucapkan penghargaan kepada Great Britain akan pertolongan untuk mencapai kemerdekaan, beliau mula membaca teks "Pengisytiharan Kemerdekaan".

Pengisytiharan itu disambut dengan laungan "MERDEKA" 7 kali sebagai Perdana Menteri Persekutuan Tanah Melayu yang pertama di hadapan 20 ribu rakyat Persekutuan Tanah Melayu dan Raja-rajanya serta perwakilan dari 30 negara-negara Komanwel dan negara-negara asing lainnya. Bendera Persekutuan Tanah Melayu telah dinaikkan dengan iringan Lagu Kebangsaan Negaraku yang buat pertama kalinya diperdengarkan secara rasmi dalam sebuah negara baru. Diikuti pula selepas itu dengan seruan azan sebagai simbolik lahirnya sebuah negara yang baru dan tembakan meriam seratus satu das.

Dengan bunyi nobat nafiri, Yang di-Pertuan Agong diiringi oleh Duke of Gloucester, berangkat pergi dari pentas diikiuti oleh pemerintah Melayu yang lain, Perdana Menteri dan Sir Donald MacGillivray. Kemudian, Doa Selamat dibacakan bagi memohon keberkatan dan keredhaan Allah terhadap sebuah negara yang baru dilahirkan

Dengan pengisytiharan itu, maka berakhirlah penjajahan Inggeris dan kuasa Baginda Ratu ke atas Persekutuan Tanah Melayu termasuk Pulau Pinang dan Melaka iaitu sejak lebih 170 tahun. Pada hari itu juga Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British terakhir di Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, Sir Donald MacGillivray dan isterinya telah meninggalkan negara ini dan pulang ke England.


Buat kali terakhir GOD SAVE THE QUEEN dimainkan...